Psychological well-being and satisfactory adjustment to society and to the ordinary demands of life.

Mental health is the ability to live life in a positive way. Good mental health includes a sense of well-being and control over your life, allowing us to take part in society and make sound decisions in different situations. Mental health means much more than just a lack of mental illness, and is something we should all try to achieve.

Good mental health enables us to:

  • Start, keep, and, if necessary, end relationships
  • Work, or attend school or college
  • Look after oneself or others
  • Get a good night’s sleep
  • Laugh and cry
  • Eat healthily
  • Avoid D& A problems
  • Deal with what others think about us
  • Accept failure and deal with success
  • Function sexually, if wished
  • Learn
  • Deal with loss
  • Express good feelings
  • Manage negative feelings

Mental health is not just the absence of mental disorder. It is defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community.

World Health Organisation

Please see our advice on how to manage each issue relating to mental health

If anything, I’m proud to be bipolar and speak about it. Bipolar is a mood disorder. I deal with mood swings, I deal with episodes of mania, and bipolar-depression phases as well. But I’ve used my voice to help others, and I feel proud that I’ve been able to do that.

Demi Lovato


People now have a better perspective on where I was coming from [in the past] and just an understanding that it wasn’t coming from necessarily being ungrateful, shall we say, or not aware of the opportunities that were in front of me, it was just me struggling with being able to actually be there.

Zayn Malik




What is Anger?

  • Anger results from feeling powerless in the face of a situation or interaction that seems unfair
  • We use anger as a ‘quick fix’ to fight back at the injustice we are having to face
  • Reactive anger never resolves the issue that caused it, and can lead to an escalation of the problem
  • Bottled-up anger can be dangerous and destructive, and can result in the injury of another person, the breakdown of a friendship, or damage to property


Anger Management

  • Learn how to recognise and express your anger in a healthier way
  • Learn how to dissipate your anger then change your thoughts and behaviours accordingly
  • Learn how to externalise your anger – Change statements like, ‘I’m an angry person’, to ‘Anger sometimes causes a problem for me’
  • Accept that there are some advantages to reactive anger, giving you an immediate ‘reward’ by winning the conflict with the other person, or by helping you fight against feelings of depression and anxiety
  • It is important to discover what these ‘rewards’ are in you
  • Learn to RELAX to release your ‘fighting energy’ and stop you verbally attacking the person back
  • Step back from the situation; breathe deeply through your diaphragm; then count to 10 before responding !
  • Re-assess the situation and try and see it from a more positive perspective
  • Respond in an assertive way, rather than by being aggressive; Respond with CONCRETE statements about what you heard and saw. Use ‘I feel…’ statements
  • RE-EVALUATE ! Did the person really mean what they said? Is the situation really as bad as I thought? Did the person intentionally mean to hurt me? Have I been misunderstood by the other person? Am I taking what they said too literally? Has the person behaved in the same way to others? Is it possible to see the situation from the other person’s point of view?
  • Look for a solution to the problem rather than focussing on winning
  • Take away the other person’s power by reminding yourself, no one has the ability to make me feel ANGRY: It is an emotion that I generated
  • BECOME LESS ANGRY ! Start practicing some form of meditation; Learn visualisation or guided-imagery techniques; Distract yourself with music to reduce your level of physical arousal; Or do some physical exercise, in order to become a CALMER person
  • Having less anger in your life will make you feel more REAXED and HAPPIER !


Breathing exercises to help with stress and anger

  • You can do the exercises while standing, sitting or lying down.
  • Make yourself as comfortable as possible, by loosening you clothes, for example.
  • If standing, stand upright with both feet on the floor, hip’s width apart; If sitting, sit upright in your chair, both feet on the ground, your arms resting on the chair arms; If lying down, place your arms by your side, with your legs straight and feet slightly apart
  • Take a slow deep inhalation of breath in to your stomach, counting slowly 1 to 5 as you do so
  • Hold your breath for a few seconds, then slowly breath out, again counting 1 to 5.
  • Breathe in through your nose, and out through your mouth, gently and regularly
  • Continue doing this for 3 to 5 minutes




  • Find a quiet, safe space, such as your bedroom, and make yourself comfortable
  • Quietly play some relaxing ‘mood’ music, such as the sounds of a rainforest
  • Take a few slow deep breaths (see breathing techniques above)
  • Lie on the floor, with arms by your sides, palms up, legs straight in front of you, feet slightly apart
  • Lightly close your eyes
  • Imagine yourself in a beautiful location, perhaps in the mountains, or in a forest, or on a beach you were once at on holiday, where you felt happy and contented
  • Imagine yourself there now feeling calm and relaxed, happy and enjoying yourself.
  • Focus on your different senses. If on the beach, imagine the smell of the sea, the warmth of the sun on your skin, the sound of the waves, the wind, and the seagulls flying overhead
  • Remain in this place for 5 to 10 minutes, developing your imagination and senses more intensely as the time passes
  • When you feel relaxed, slowly open your eyes and re-connect with the world
  • Remember you can return to this space any time you feel upset, angry or stressed in the future



What is Anxiety?

  • Anxiety is the body’s normal response to danger, and can be helpful in certain situations, such as when we need to perform well, say when taking an exam
  • If we didn’t have regular anxiety, we would not get out of bed in the morning!
  • It is normal for young people to feel anxious on their first day at school, when going to the dentist, or giving a speech on front of their class mates, for example
  • Anxiety triggers a hormone called adrenaline in to our bloodstream that activates our body, enabling us to fight or flight
  • Anxiety can become a problem when there is an over activation of ‘fight or flight’ responses over a long period of time
  • Young people who regularly suffer from heightened anxiety, are more hyper-alert, and constantly look for danger
  • Chronic anxiety is a mirror image of depression, so both symptoms often go hand in hand

Signs of anxiety – psychological

  • Being more argumentative, snappy and irritable than usual
  • Being restless, not being able to sit still, and not being able to focus on normal everyday tasks
  • Talking more quickly than usual

Signs of anxiety – physical

  • Heart racing faster, causing light headedness, and tingling in your fingers and toes
  • Breathing gets faster and shallower, making you feel light headed, and dizzy, perhaps having blurred vision
  • Muscles tensing perhaps causing pain, aching and shaking
  • Excessive sweating
  • Pupils dilating
  • Nausea, butterflies, dry mouth

Signs of anxiety – behaviour

  • Avoiding normal situations, such as crowded places, avoiding friends, or being stressed at the thought of going to school, or simply leaving the house
  • Going to certain places such as the gym or shops only at times when there are fewer people around
  • Not being able to finish tasks you started
  • Pacing up and down, or running away from situations
  • Not being able to go to places without someone else accompanying you
  • Using coping strategies when going to a feared situation, such as smoking, avoiding eye contact, fiddling with your hair, or already having an escape plan in your head

Some causes of anxiety

  • Past trauma, such as an assault or attack, bullying, bereavement, difficulties at school, relationship breakdown, family break up or divorce
  • Unhelpful thought patterns, such as thinking something terrible is always going to happen, known as catastrophising
  • Having unrealistic expectations being put upon you, or putting unrealistic expectations on yourself
  • Comparing yourself negatively to others, having low confidence, low self-image, low self-esteem
  • Anxiety runs in families, so if you have an anxious parent, you may be prone to anxiety yourself


Strategies to help with anxiety


  • Make a plan to gradually do the things you are avoiding, known as exposure therapy
  • Safety behaviours, such as avoiding crowded places, if you are socially anxious, will only make you feel worse in the long term
  • Stop and take a deep breath (see breathing techniques), so you can respond to a situation, rather than react
  • Ask yourself what is the worst that could possibly happen in a difficult situation?
  • Ask yourself am I overestimating the danger, and visualise yourself coping with the difficult situation you are faced with instead
  • Understanding the reason for your anxiety will help you take control of it and make you feel better
  • Reduce your stress by practicing mindfulness, visualisations, or relaxation techniques
  • Take up a new hobby or activity, do some exercise, or join a gym to improve your confidence or self-esteem
  • Lead a healthier lifestyle and get plenty of sleep, leaving all mobiles and TV monitors out of the bedroom. Reading or listening to some relaxing music may help before bedtime, as might a warm milky drink



What is assertiveness?
  • Assertiveness is being able to stand up for yourself, making sure your opinions and feelings are considered, and not letting other people always get their way
  • Assertive messages are expressed in a polite and clear way, always being respectful of self and others
  • In being assertive, there is a belief that all individuals are equal, each deserving respect, no one being more entitled than others
  • The connection with others remains warm, welcoming and relaxed
  • Assertiveness can be learnt, and is a way of communicating with, and behaving towards others, that helps a person become more confident and self-aware
  • Assertiveness is not about getting angry in situations and losing our temper (being aggressive)
  • Assertiveness is not about saying nothing or giving in to everyone around them (being passive)
What are the positive results of assertive behaviour?
  • Maintaining positive healthy relationships with others
  • Getting your needs met without compromising others rights
  • Achieving social harmony, from believing that everyone is equal, each deserving respect, with no one being more entitled than anyone else
  • Assertiveness allows the person to be open and honest with others
  • Assertiveness increases the person’s confidence, and respect from others
  • Assertiveness allows others to know what we want
  • Assertiveness is not about WINNING, but is about being able to walk away feeling we have put across what we want to say in a non- aggressive way
  • Assertiveness is about being able to change your mind
  • Assertiveness is about NOT being responsible for the thoughts, feelings or behaviours of others
  • Assertiveness is about being able to say NO in a polite way – such as ‘I’m quite busy now. Perhaps another time.’
Where does assertiveness come from?
  • As we grow up we learn to adapt our behaviour to the environment around us
  • We model our behaviour on parents, relatives, teachers, friends, and other influences, such as what we see on TV, or through social media
  • If we were brought up in a healthy, supportive, empathetic, stable environment, assertiveness will probably come quite naturally to us
  • If we were bullied at school, or abused by our parents as a child, we are more likely to react on a passive or an aggressive way
  • We can all behave passively, aggressively, or assertively, depending on the situation we’re in, but probably have a preferred style of operating in relation with others
What is passive behaviour?
  • Being compliant, submissive or non-committal
  • Bottling up feelings, or expressing them in indirect or unhelpful ways
  • Assuming other people have rights, but that you don’t
  • Putting yourself down while praising or bigging up others
  • Assuming the other person’s needs and opinions are more important than yours
  • Assuming the other person is always right and that you have little or nothing to contribute
  • Avoiding eye contact, or looking down
  • Hunching shoulders or stooping, in order to make your body smaller
  • Being fidgety, perhaps feeling clammy
  • Giving in to others, and not getting what we want
What are the negative results of passive behaviour?
  • Loss of confidence, self-worth and self-esteem
  • Increased stress, anger, or depression
  • Not getting what you want or need
  • Having self-critical thoughts
What is aggressive behaviour?
  • Aggressive behaviour is the opposite of assertive behaviour
  • Aggressive behaviour is about getting your needs met without respecting other people’s needs, rights, opinions, feelings
  • Aggressive behaviour includes finger pointing or clenching fists
  • Aggressive behaviour results in making enemies and upsetting others
  • The aim of aggressive behaviour is to WIN
What are the negative results of aggressive behaviour?
  • Initially, aggression may lead to reduced tension and feeling more powerful
  • In the long term, aggressive behaviour leads to guilt and shame
  • It places the responsibility of your anger on to others
  • It ultimately leads to decreased self-confidence and lower self-esteem
  • It leads to unhealthy relationships, with those around the aggressive person becoming resentful of them

Bereavement and Loss


We all respond to bereavement in different ways:

  • Sadness, anger, disbelief, shock, distress, guilt, pain, depression, sleeplessness and longing are all normal responses to loss
  • It is normal to feel sad angry and scared one day, then feel happy and able to enjoy life again on another
  • We never get over the loss of a close loved one; We just get used to it
  • The intense pain suffered around grief and loss of a loved one varies from person to person, but typically lasts around 2 years
  • Our emotions can be triggered by situations – such as a birthday – for many years to come
  • It is important to talk to loved ones – friends – relatives – about how you feel
  • Don’t let the hurt grow until you break down
  • Comfort and be comforted by those around you
  • Share happy memories of times spent with the person you have lost
  • Be prepared that special times such as birthdays, anniversaries, Christmas Day and New Year will be extra difficult
  • Write a poem or a letter the person you have lost; keep a diary of how you are feeling
  • Create a Memory Box and collect together photographs, possessions and keepsakes of the loved one
  • Regularly visit the loved one’s grave or the special place where their ashes were scattered
  • And remember, TAKE ONE DAY AT A TIME!

Loss can include parent’s divorce or separation, moving to a new home, change of school and losing friends, death of a family pet, family illness etc. All these can cause similar feelings to a bereavement.



What is depression?
  • Being depressed, or experiencing low mood from time to time, is a normal part of the human condition
  • Depression only becomes a problem when it becomes very deep or lasts for a prolonged period of time, over several weeks or months
What are some of the causes of depression?
  • Being overwhelmed by life’s pressures, such as exams or school
  • A result of sickness, particularly if suffering from a chronic condition, which prevents you doing the things you used to
  • Unhealthy family relationships, family breakdown, or divorce
  • Bereavement in the family, or loss of a friend
  • Relationship breakdowns
  • Inability to accept others who don’t live up to your expectations
  • Having abnormal expectations being placed in you either by others or yourself
  • Having to ‘parent’ a family member due to them having a physical illness or a mental health condition
  • Depression can also occur when a young person is unable to express their anger towards others, then internalises the negative feelings
Signs of depression
  • Regularly dwelling on negative thoughts, such as thinking everything is hopeless; I am useless; the world is a terrible place
  • Constant feelings of tiredness and lethargy
  • Changes in sleeping habits – either sleeping more or less, or waking up frequently in the night
  • Having difficulty concentrating, such as in lessons, or doing homework
  • Changes in eating habits – either eating more or having a loss of appetite
  • Loss of interest in hobbies, activities, interests
  • Isolation from friends or family
  • Lack of self-care such as not showering regularly or not taking care of your appearance
How to overcome depressed feelings
  • Try to identify things that make you feel better, and avoid things that make you feel worse
  • Remember you have a choice to do things that will make you feel better, or the things that leave you feeling depressed
  • Develop a healthy balance of daily activities, which will give you a sense of achievement and enjoyment
  • Spend more time with family and friends rather than isolating yourself in your bedroom
  • Take up a new activity or do some physical exercise, such as going to the gym, walking, swimming or cycling
  • Learn mindfulness, or make time to practice relaxation techniques on a daily basis
  • Talk positively to yourself, repeating to yourself you are strong, capable and confident
  • Stop using a negative filter, by looking through ‘gloomy specs’, and seeing things in the worst possible way
  • Pamper yourself – do something that you really enjoy
  • Imagine yourself doing and enjoying the things that you used to do, or would like to do in the future
  • Remind yourself that depressed feelings are only temporary – they will go away with time!

Obsessions & Compulsions

What are Obsessions and Compulsions?
  • They are a pattern of extreme behaviours carried out by an individual in order to avoid perceived danger or threats
  • Consider them as an extreme form of superstitious behaviour, such as avoiding walking under ladders to avoid misfortune
  • Obsessions are related to unwanted invasive thoughts or images entering our heads, which result in compulsive behaviour
  • These thoughts cause individuals to have heightened levels of anxiety, resulting in the carrying out of repetitive time-consuming rituals, to try and relieve the distress suffered
  • Initially, the rituals relieve the distress suffered, but then become distressing in themselves, when they become more and more time consuming, and obsessive
  • The individual becomes convinced that the only reason that they have avoided danger so far, is because they have constantly carried out their ritualistic behaviour to prevent it
  • Individuals suffering from this disorder may also avoid situations or doing something that may trigger unwanted, invasive thoughts, further limiting their lives
What are some examples of obsessive compulsive thoughts?
  • Fear of forgetting to do something, such as not locking the door, leaving the iron or cooker on
  • Fear of being contaminated by germs, such as from drinking out of a dirty glass, or from having dirty hands
  • Fear of harming others, such as thoughts of attacking someone with a knife
  • Being obsessive about order, making sure everything is always in its correct place
  • Having superstitions around numbers, such as making sure the loudness of their TV is always turned to an ‘even’ rather than an ‘odd’ volume setting
  • Being excessively clean, by constantly taking a shower, or obsessively cleaning and tidying their home
  • Carrying out ritualistic behaviour, such as following a strict bedtime routine, always doing things strictly in the same order
What are some signs of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?


  • Anxiety or panicky
  • Guilty or ashamed
  • Dirty or unclean

Physical symptoms

  • Dizziness or light headedness
  • Tenseness or having muscular pain
  • Nauseousness
  • Heart racing or perspiring


  • I did not lock the door when I left the house
  • I am contaminated with germs
  • I will hurt someone
  • Someone could break in to my house


  • Constantly checking that a task has been completed properly
  • Repeatedly showering or excessively washing your hands
  • Avoiding touching any objects that may be dirty
  • Carry out ritualistic behaviour, such as making sure everything is always in its correct position
Causes of obsessions and compulsions
  • Having less healthy thought patterns, where a person always assumes the very worst will happen
  • Thinking that if something bad happens they will be responsible and held to blame for it
  • Having the belief that their unwanted thoughts have great significance and meaning
  • Having the belief that there is something abnormal about them for having such thoughts
  • Suffering from a stressful life event, such as a family or relationship break up, or a bereavement
  • Learnt behaviour from a parent or other biologically inherited factors
How can you control obsessive thoughts and behaviours?
  • Gradually confront your thoughts and behaviours by not engaging in the relief seeking rituals attached to them
  • Realise that the anxiety created by the thoughts will disappear of its own accord, usually within 30 minutes, if you are able to sit quietly
  • Confront and challenge the least anxiety-inducing thoughts first, focussing on one ritual at a time
  • Repeatedly challenge your behaviour until the invasive thought attached to it causes you no further anxiety, such as resisting the need to check you have locked the front door as you leave the house
  • Do not try and block or push away the invasive thoughts, as that will only make them worse, just remind yourself they are meaningless and random, and allow them to float away
  • Try relaxation exercises or visualisations, in order to reduce your stress
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle, take up a hobby, sport or interst

Self Esteem


Do I have positive self-esteem?
  • I generally have positive thoughts about myself
  • I know what sort of person I am and what my strengths and weaknesses are
  • I am able to cope with life’s difficulties without them having a long-term negative impact on me
  • I do not worry about lots of small details of my day
  • I think I can generally succeed in life
  • I do not compare myself unfavourably to others
  • I can make friends easily and adapt to new situations
  • I am assertive and able to ask to get my needs met
  • I can admit to my mistakes and learn from them
  • I believe I am doing the best I can in life

Too many young girls have eating disorders due to low self-esteem and a distorted body image. I think it’s so important for girls to love themselves and to treat their bodies respectfully.

Ariana Grande


Why do young people suffer from low self-esteem?
  • Negative life experiences, such as bullying, or being overly criticised by parents, teachers, or peers
  • Stressful events, such as home financial problems, parental separation, or the unexpected death of a loved one
  • Poor academic achievement in school, resulting in low self-confidence
  • Poor treatment from a parent, carer or sibling, such as on-going verbal or physical abuse
  • Suffering from an on-going medical condition, or being in constant pain because of it
  • Suffering from a mental disability , such as anxiety or depression

I let it get to me that day. I wasn’t in a good place. And unfortunately I was going through a rough time and I let it get to me a little bit too much. That was it…

Going out and putting that happy smile on my face and singing the songs, honestly, sometimes it was like putting on one of those costumes, going out there and, underneath the costume, people don’t really see what’s going on.

Liam Payne


Do I have low self-esteem?
  1. I often have negative, self-critical thoughts, calling myself stupid or worthless, or assume others think that way about me
  2. I compare myself unfavourably to others, thinking they are cleverer, more popular, or better-looking than me
  3. I don’t get my own needs met, because I always try to please others
  4. I overuse statements that include ‘I should’ or ‘I must’
  5. I struggle with failure, assume I won’t get things right in the future, and assume I have to work harder than others, to cover up my inability
  6. I put unrealistic expectations on myself that I don’t on others
  7. I feel isolated, find it difficult to make friends, or feel victimised by others
  8. I find change difficult, and avoid taking risks or trying new things
  9. I have a negative filter, minimise my positives, and assume the worst will always happen to me, by looking through ‘gloomy specs’
  10. I spend a lot of time thinking about what I did wrong in the past, or worrying about what will go wrong in the future
  11. I jump to conclusions, and misinterpret situations, or misunderstand what people say to me

If you answered yes to 5 or more of the statements above, you may have a negative view of yourself, and suffer from poor self-esteem

How to build up your self-esteem?
  • Try to live in the present rather than dwell on the past, or worry about the future
  • Do not compare yourself unfavourably to others, by automatically assuming they are better or more talented than you
  • Be assertive, and communicate your wants and needs, in a non-aggressive way
  • Challenge negative self-talk – beware of the ‘poisoned parrot’ on your shoulder, constantly putting you down, or criticising you
  • Be kinder to yourself, as if you were your own best friend, and do not treat yourself harshly, if you make a mistake
  • Accept praise from others when you do things well
  • Each day, take time to remind yourself of your good qualities and achievements
  • Lead a healthy lifestyle – exercise, eat well, get a good night’s sleep, and above all HAVE FUN

Self Harm

What is self-harm?
  • Self-harm is any behaviour such as cutting, self-strangulation, or overdosing, in order to cause actual bodily harm
  • It is not normally considered to be attention-seeking behaviour, though can be a symptom of an underlying personality disorder in adults
  • Self-harm often expresses a deep sense of despair, and can help relieve the individual from deep emotional pain and wounding, even if only temporarily
  • Self-harm can also be linked to the desire of the individual to take their own life, so any act of self-harm must be taken seriously by parents, carers, school staff
  • In some cases, a young person may accidentally take their own life through self-harm, by not receiving help quickly enough, after an act of self-harm
Why do young people self-harm?
  • There are a number of factors which may lead a young person to self-harm
  • Individual factors, such as depression or anxiety, or low self-esteem
  • Family factors, such a poor parental relationships, or unreasonable expectations placed on the young person
  • Social factors, such as the inability to make friendships, or bullying
  • School or exam pressures
  • The break-up of a significant relationship
  • Self-harm temporarily takes away the young person’s pain, and distracts them from their problems
  • The temporary relief a young person gets from self-harm, can result in a cycle of cutting, as an escape from emotional pain
  • Young people often suffer from shame and guilt for self-harming
Warning signs of possible self-harm
  • Risk-taking behaviour, such as misuse of drugs or alcohol
  • Changes in sleeping habits/sleeplessness
  • Becoming withdrawn from family or friends
  • Changes in mood, such as uncharacteristic angry outbursts, or through expression of depressive thoughts
  • Poor achievement at school
  • Expressing feelings of hopelessness or poor self-worth
  • Talk of suicide or self-harm

Megan Fox was asked by Rolling Stone magazine if she was a cutter, to which she replied, “Yeah, but I don’t want to elaborate. I would never call myself a cutter. Girls go through different phases when they’re growing up, when they’re miserable and do different things, whether it’s an eating disorder or they dabble in cutting.”

Megan Fox

Model, Actor

Strategies to help reduce self-harm
  • Do something physical, such as go to the gym, or meet up with friends for a coffee, or go to the movies
  • Be creative, such as keep a diary of your feelings, write poetry or draw or paint in order to express your feelings in a more positive way; take up a hobby or interest
  • Displace the need to cut by snapping an elastic band on your wrist; draw lines on your arms with a pen, or hold ice-cubes on the areas of your skin where you would ordinarily be tempted to cut
  • Think about the long-lasting negative effects of scarring through self-harm
  • Spend less time in your bedroom isolated from your family; take part in family activities, instead
  • Take a cold shower or go for a walk
Help for self-harm
  • Professional individual counselling can help a young person improve their self-esteem, work though their problems, and help them manage their emotions in a healthier way
  • Professionally trained counsellors are accessible in all schools within the East Riding
  • Family support is an important part of the healing process, as parents with an understanding of the causes of self-harm will be more supportive of the problem, and encourage the young person to express their concerns and worries to them

Suicidal thoughts

(also known as Suicidal ideation)

Facts about suicidal ideation
  • Most persons thinking of suicide want help to stay alive
  • People thinking of suicide find ways to invite help from others
  • Invitations are often missed or avoided
  • The best way to find out if someone is thinking of suicide is to ask them directly
  • Asking directly about suicide will not give them the idea to take their own lives
  • Avoiding direct and open talk about suicide is not helpful and could be dangerous
  • Anyone could have thoughts of suicide
  • Thoughts of suicide are usually temporary
  • Everyone can learn how to help support young people with suicidal thoughts
Signs that a young person may have suicidal ideation


  • Does the young person have a care-less attitude
  • Are they uncharacteristically moody or withdrawn
  • Are there signs of drug or alcohol abuse?

(Hear) TALK

  • Does the young person appear to be more secretive, and talk about preferring to being alone
  • Do they consider themselves a burden on family or friends
  • Do they talk about having no purpose; no future
  • Do they talk about escaping


  • Do they appear desperate?
  • Do they express hopelessness?
  • Do they say they feel numb and disconnected from family and friends?
  • Do they appear shamed by previous actions?


  • Has there been any abuse or trauma in the young person’s life, including bullying?
  • Has the young person suffered a recent relationship breakdown?
  • Has the young person suffered any other significant loss – bereavement?
  • Has the young person attempted to take their own life before?
Assess the risk of the young person acting out on any suicidal thoughts
  • What is the frequency of their thoughts?
  • Do they have a plan?
  • Do they have the means to act out on such thoughts (access to pills, for example)?
  • Do they have an intention to act on such thoughts?
  • What are their life-preserving resources (reasons not to act on the thoughts, such as family relationships)?
  • What has changed in the young person’s outlook (since a previous suicide attempt)?
If you are concerned, it is important to put a safeguarding plan in place
  • If you feel a young person is at significant risk of taking their own life, report your concerns to EHASH (East Riding of Yorkshire Council, Early Help & Safeguarding Hub) 01482 395500 (01482 395530 out of hours); Call CAHMS Crisis Point for advice and support 01482 301704
  • Also ask for support from the young person’s school, their social worker and GP
  • Suicide-proof your home (remove access to knives, ropes, cords, pills, vacuum hoses, belts, toxic liquids)
  • Put in a 24-hour supervision roster in place for the young person
  • Encourage the young person to use a traffic light system to indicate when they don’t feel safe (using red, yellow, and green wrist bands, for example)
  • Encourage the young person to practice distraction techniques
  • Give the young person Childline’s number 0800 1111

Any family will need emotional support after a suicide – perhaps from a qualified counsellor

They may need to talk about their feelings: of being alone; their sadness; their devastation, unresolved anger; fear of their feelings; feelings of shame, guilt, abandonment; possible confusing feelings of relief. They may need to talk about their thoughts: thoughts of disbelief; their ambivalence; not knowing how to cope, constantly re-playing the story in their minds, searching for answers; denial of the loss.

Where to go for help…

Humberside Police – non Urgent 101
Humberside Police – Immediate danger 999

Youth and Family Support, East Riding –

Help for Children and Young People 0800 1111